Steve Bruce was without a Premier League win in 44 games when his side had been trailing at the break so the omens weren't good for the visitors when Matej Vydra put the Clarets ahead.
However, inspired by substitute Allan Saint-Maximin, the Magpies staged a remarkable recovery, turning the game around in a five-minute spell early in the second half.
The Frenchman teed up Jacob Murphy for the equaliser before slotting past Bailey Peacock-Farrell to put Newcastle in front.
Sean Dyche s side have now won just one game in 11 in all competitions at Turf Moor since the turn of the year.
1. Bailey Peacock-Farrell 6.2
Made an outstanding save to deny Gayle from point blank range in the first half and read the game well to come off his line to clear the danger on occasions. Look assured, but couldn't do anything to prevent either Newcastle goal.
Photo: Jon Super
2. Matt Lowton 6.1
Tested Dubravka with a dipping volley from outside the box in the second half. Defended astutely throughout, blocking crosses when showing Almiron/Ritchie/Longstaff outside, and used the ball well.
Photo: Jon Super
3. Erik Pieters 5.8
Better in the first half, slipped away in the second. Defended well and intelligently when up against Almiron, but took his eye off Murphy for Newcastle's equaliser. Caught out of position on occasions and committed a number of fouls after the break.
Photo: Alex Pantling
4. James Tarkowski 5.9
Backed off Saint-Maximin when the forward broke through the middle and was turned too easily inside the box when the substitute finished. Did well to get back to the line to block Almiron's strike late on.
Photo: Paul Ellis